What is Vitamin D – Review the Latest Research

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Vitamin D is crucial for bone and tooth health, the immune system, brain health, and controlling inflammation. The body produces vitamin D in reaction to sun exposure.

Certain food items and supplements can help boost consumption of vitamin D. Contrary to what it is called Vitamin D, which isn't a vitamin but a hormone or prohormone.

This article will look at the health benefits that vitamin D can provide, the negative effects on our bodies when individuals don't get enough, and ways to increase the intake of vitamin D.

The role of vitamin D within the body

Vitamin D is critical for a variety of bodily functions.

Healthy bones

Vitamin D aids in calcium absorption and assists in maintaining the proper amounts of calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. These are vital for the health of bones and teeth.

Vitamin D deficiencies in kids can increase rickets and the appearance of a bowlegged one because of the softening of the bones. It can also cause dental issues, such as teeth not developing as they should.

Similar to adults, vitamin D deficiencies can result in osteomalacia, or a softening of bones. Over time, vitamin D deficiency can cause osteoporosis or low bone density, which increases the chance of breaking bones.

Immune function

A healthy dose of Vitamin D can help maintain good immune functioning and lower the chance of developing autoimmune disorders.

Researchers believe that there is a connection between the long-term effects of vitamin D deficiency and the onset of autoimmune diseases like type-1 diabetes condition and rheumatoid arthritis; however, more research is required to prove the connection.

Vitamin D deficiency

While the body can create vitamin D through sunlight, certain people are susceptible to developing deficiency. The factors that influence this include:

  • Lack of exposure to the sun: People who live in northern climates or areas with high levels of pollution might not get enough vitamin D like other people. People who work at night or do not go out could also suffer from a deficiency.
  • Color of the skin: Skin pigmentation diminishes the body's ability to catch ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Skin tones with darker shades produce less vitamin D in sunlight than those with lighter skin.
  • The age of the user: The skin's ability to produce vitamin D diminishes with age. Older adults may also be more likely to spend time indoors.
  • Breastfeeding: Babies cannot get enough vitamin D from breast milk alone. It is recommended that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusively or partially breastfed babies receive 400 units (IU) daily of vitamin D taken orally until they're weaned. After weaning, they must receive at least 1,000 milliliters of vitamin D-fortified formula or whole milk. Children receiving lower than that or whose caretakers did not breastfeed need 400 IU of vitamin D supplements.
  • Weight of the body: A high level of body fat may restrict the body's ability to absorb vitamin D through the skin.
  • A few medical ailments: Vitamin D is fat-soluble, meaning intake depends on the gut's ability to absorb fats from diets. Conditions that hinder the absorption of fats may reduce vitamin D intake from a diet.
  • Gastric bypass procedure: This surgery bypasses an area of the upper intestine that absorbs large quantities of Vitamin D, which could cause deficiency.

Signs of vitamin D deficiency

A majority of people suffering from vitamin D deficiency don't have symptoms. But, a chronic deficiency could cause osteomalacia. It could lead to:

  • bone discomfort
  • joint pain
  • muscles are weak or spasms
  • issues with bone development or teeth

With time, weak bones could contribute to osteoporosis and increase the risk of falling and fractures, particularly in older adults.

Vitamin D insufficient levels can result in hyperparathyroidism, which occurs when the parathyroid glands release hormonal imbalances that cause the levels of calcium in the blood to be too high.

Vitamin D in children and infants

Childhood and infancy are times of rapid bone development, which is why babies must receive adequate quantities of Vitamin D.

Chronic vitamin D deficiency may cause rickets. This condition causes swelling of bone tissues, which could result in the deformation of joints and bones.

Vitamin D deficiency is linked to elevated blood pressure among children. A 2018 study found that low vitamin D levels could be linked to stiffness of the arterial wall.

The American Academy for Allergy and Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) has suggested that low vitamin D intake is associated with a greater chance of sensitization to allergens.

Children who live near the equator, where the levels of light are higher and lower are less likely to be hospitalized for allergies and fewer prescriptions for auto-injectors of epinephrine or EpiPens. They also are less likely to be suffering from an allergy to peanuts.

Vitamin D during pregnancy

A study from 2019 indicates that women who are deficient in vitamin D could be at a higher risk of developing preeclampsia or having a premature birth.

The researchers of the 2020 review discovered a connection between higher levels of vitamin D and a lower risk of developing. But, researchers must conduct further studies to prove this.

A few studies link a low vitamin D level with gestational diabetes. Healthy vitamin D intake is also associated with a lower chance of developing allergies in infants. However, other research has demonstrated that high vitamin D intake can increase the risk.

A 2015 study suggests that treating vitamin D deficiency could also help eliminate asymptomatic bacterial Vaginosis (BV) among women of reproductive age. The BV virus can have adverse effects during pregnancy.

However, research that focused specifically on pregnant women found no link between vitamin D supplements and the prevention of BV and BV, therefore it is imperative to conduct more research.

Vitamin D sources

Most people get their vitamin D through sunlight exposure. However, not everyone can rely on sunlight exposure to produce vitamin D. In the winter months, when the sun's rays are less powerful, some might require Vitamin D supplementation.

These foods contain vitamin D. Also:

  • fat fish, like mackerel, salmon and tuna
  • egg yolks
  • cheese
  • Beef liver
  • mushrooms
  • fortified milk
  • Juices and cereals fortified with vitamins

Vitamin D dosage

Vitamin D levels can be measured by measuring consumption in milligrams (mcg) and international units (IU). One milligram of vitamin D is equivalent to about 40IU.

The daily recommended intake of vitamin D is as follows:

  • Infants between 0 and 12 months 400IU (10 mg)
  • Children 1-18 years old: 600 IIU (15 mg)
  • Adults between 70 and 70 years old: 600IU (15 mg)
  • Adults older than 70 years: 800 IU (20 mg)
  • Women who are lactating or pregnant: 600 IU (15 mg)

Vitamin D is a risk

The upper limit that health professionals suggest regarding vitamin D intake is 4000 IU daily for adults. It is reported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) declares that vitamin D-related toxicities are unlikely for intakes of less than 10,000 IU daily, however even lower amounts could be harmful in the long run.

Over vitamin D, it could cause hypercalcemia, which can cause weakening, fatigue as well as bone pain, and an inability to eat. The most severe signs could include:

  • nausea or vomiting
  • dehydration
  • excessive thirst
  • frequent urination
  • kidney stones
  • confusion
  • Apathy

In severe cases, hypercalcemia may cause the hardening of soft tissues, including blood vessels, or even lead to insanity. This condition could be life-threatening and requires medical attention immediately.

If taking supplements, one must select their brand with care since they are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA doesn't control the safety or purity of supplements in the same manner it supervises pharmaceuticals.


Below are the answers to a few frequently asked questions regarding vitamin D.

What is vitamin D's role in your body?

Vitamin D aids in bone strength. It could also regulate blood sugar and maintain healthy blood pressure levels. However, studies on this have had mixed outcomes.

What is the most effective way to get vitamin D?

For many, sunlight is the most easily accessible supply of vitamin D. If you can't get sunlight supplementation, food sources may meet your daily needs.

How can I boost my vitamin D levels quickly?

A brief amount of time outside in sunlight, with a few skin areas exposed, can increase vitamin D levels. However, it is crucial to protect eyes and skin from the damaging effects of UV light while out.

There is also the option of taking vitamin D to boost levels. Certain foods contain significant quantities of vitamin D.

Which vitamin D is the primary treatment for?

Vitamin D is an essential nutritional element. It cannot cure illnesses by itself, but it can help with many bodily functions, and so having enough could be beneficial in lessening the risk of some diseases.


The body makes vitamin D through sunlight exposure. Supplements and a tiny amount of foods also contain vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential to keeping teeth and bones healthy and can aid in other bodily functions.

The research into the benefits of a sufficient vitamin D intake is ongoing. Deficiency in vitamin D can result in weakening bones as well as osteoporosis. If you take too much, vitamin D toxicity can result in hypercalcemia, which could be dangerous.

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