Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Latest Research Included

Full Disclosure

Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamin, is one of the eight B vitamins. All B vitamins aid your body in transforming nutrients (carbohydrates) into energy (glucose), which is used to generate power. The B vitamins, commonly known as B complex vitamins, assist in the use of proteins and fats. B Complex vitamins are required for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and the liver. They also aid in helping the nervous system to function properly.

Every one of the B vitamins is water-soluble, which means that the body cannot retain them.

Vitamin B12 is an exceptionally essential vitamin to ensure healthy nerve cells and assists in the production of DNA and RNA, which are the cells' genetic materials. Vitamin B12 interacts with vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid, to assist in the creation of red blood cells and aid in the functioning of iron in the body. Folate and B12 collaborate to create S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) w, a chemical essential for immunity and mood.

Vitamins B12 B,6, B6, and B9 reduce blood levels of homocysteine, an amino acid. The presence of homocysteine in the blood is linked to heart disease. Researchers aren't sure if homocysteine is the reason for heart disease or is just an indicator that suggests the presence of heart disease.

It is uncommon for younger people to be lacking in Vitamin B12. However, it's common for older individuals to be deficient to a small degree. It could be due to their diets aren't as well-balanced or because they are more acidic in their stomachs, which is what the body needs for absorption of B12. A low level of B12 can lead to a variety of symptoms that include:

  • Fatigue
  • Breathing problems
  • Diarrhea
  • Nervousness
  • Numbness
  • A tingling sensation is felt between the toes and fingers

A severe deficiency of B12 can cause nerve damage.

Others who are at risk for B12 deficiencies include:

  • Vegetarians, vegans, or vegetarians that don't consume eggs or dairy products because vitamin B12 is only found in animal products
  • People who have difficulty absorbing nutrients because of Crohn's disease or pancreatic disease and weight loss surgery or other medications
  • People suffering from Helicobacter Pylori, an organism found in the intestines, may cause an ulcer. H. Pylori causes damage to stomach cells, which produce intrinsic factors, which are substances that the body must absorb B12.
  • People who suffer from an eating disorder
  • People who have HIV
  • People suffering from diabetes
  • The older

Folic acid (vitamin B9), especially when consumed in large doses, may mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. There is a risk that, without signs, a person suffering from a vitamin B12 deficiency may not recognize it and run the possibility of developing nerve damage. It is recommended that you consult your physician first if you are planning to consume more than 800 mg of folic acid to confirm that you do not suffer from a B12 deficiency.

Vitamin B12 is utilized to:

Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia is a form of anemia that occurs when stomach cells aren't capable of making intrinsic factors. In the absence of intrinsic factors, the body is unable to take in vitamin B12. Signs of this are:

  • Weakness
  • Pale skin
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Tingling or numbness in the feet and hands
  • Balance loss
  • Memory loss, confusion, and moodiness

Vitamin B12 Supplements in large doses, whether given as injections or orally, are recommended to treat pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a hazardous condition that a medical professional must always manage.

Heart disease

Numerous studies show that people who have high levels of homocysteine, an amino acid, are twice as likely to develop coronary artery diseases and 2.5 times more likely to suffer from strokes than those who have normal levels. B vitamin complexes, specifically vitamins B9, B6, B6, and B12, can lower homocysteine levels. Researchers don't know if homocysteine levels are causing heart disease.

People who are concerned about heart disease should attempt to take sufficient B vitamins through healthy food sources. In some instances, doctors suggest using B vitamins to reduce homocysteine levels. If you're concerned about heart problems, ask your physician if taking supplements with B vitamins is best for you.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

A large-scale study showed that women who consumed 1,000 mg of vitamin B12 together with 2500 mg of folic acid, and 500 mg vitamin B6 every day, decreased the chance of developing AMD the eye disease that could lead to loss of vision.


Fatigue is among the signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency. A small study suggests that people who were uninfected with B12 could benefit from more energy through B12 shots. However, further studies are needed. One study has suggested that those suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome could benefit from B12 injections. More research is necessary.

Breast cancer

Although there is no proof to suggest that vitamin B12 alone decreases rithe sks of developing breast cancer s,tudies have found that women who have more folate from their diet are less likely ofto developreast cancer. Vitamin B12 is a folate-dependent vitamin within the body, and it can help lower the risk of developing breast cancer. A preliminary study found that women postmenopausal who had the least amount of B12 present in their diets had an increased risk of breast cancer.

Male infertility

Research suggests that Vitamin B12 supplements could boost the number of sperm and the capacity of sperm to swim. However, further research is required.

Dietary Sources

Vitamin B12 is only found in animal food. Good food sources include:

  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Dairy products
  • Organ meats, especially kidney and liver
  • Eggs
  • Beef
  • Pork

Available Forms

Vitamin B12 is available in multivitamins (including chewable children's toys as well as liquid droplets), B complex vitamins as well as individual supplements. Vitamin B12 can be found as an intranasal form (administered via the nose) and also capsules, tablets and oral tablets. soft gels and lozenges. Vitamin B12 can also be purchased under the names cobalamin or Cyocobalamin.

How to Take It

If your diet is comprised of seafood, meat, shellfish, fish, or milk, as well as other dairy-based products, then you should be capable of meeting the recommended daily requirements without having a vitamin B12 supplement. Vegetarians who do not consume animal products must take a vitamin B12 supplement along with water, particularly after eating. Seniors may require higher quantities of vitamin B12 than young persons because the body's capacity to take in vitamin B12 through diet diminishes with the advancing years.

If you're considering using a B12 supplement, consult your doctor to determine the best dose for you.

Daily suggestions for dietary vitamin B12 are listed below.


  • Infants and newborns up to six months old: 0.4 mg (adequate intake)
  • Infants from 6 months to 1 Year: 0.5 milligrams (adequate intake)
  • Children aged 1 to 3 years old: 0.9 mg (RDA)
  • Children aged 4-8 years old: 1.2 milligrams (RDA)
  • Children aged 9-13 years: 1.8 mcg (RDA)
  • Teenagers aged 14-18 years: 2.4 mcg (RDA)


  • 19 years or older: 2.4 mcg (RDA)*
  • Women who are pregnant: 2.6 mcg (RDA)
  • Breastfeeding mothers: 2.8 mcg (RDA)

*Between 0 and 30 percent of people over 50 might not absorb B12 from their food well Over 50s should get their daily dose of B12 by eating foods that are fortified with Vitamin B12 or through a supplement with B12.


Due to the risk of reactions and side effects from medicines, it is recommended that you supplement your diet only with the guidance of a qualified health professional.

Vitamin B12 is regarded as safe and safe, however, using any among the B vitamins for a prolonged period of time could cause imbalances of other essential B vitamins. This is why it is recommended to take the B complex vitamin that contains all of the B vitamins. Folic acid taken in high doses could conceal the existence of a vitamin B12 deficiency. Therefore, these vitamins are usually taken in combination. Consult your physician before using more than mg of folic acid.

Individuals with abnormal levels of red blood cells or any abnormalities of their blood red cells should consult with a physician to determine if B12 is suitable for the patient. In some cases, B12 could be beneficial. However, it could be detrimental in conjunction with other medical conditions. For example, B12 supplements can cause significant damage to the optic nerve of patients suffering from Leber's Disease (an any-related disease). Be sure to discuss your medical doctor's recommendations.

Possible Interactions

If you're currently treated bywithne of the following drugs i,t is not recommended tothat youake vitamin B12 supplements before speaking with your health care doctor.

Medicines that decrease levels of B12 in the body are:

  • Anti-seizure medications — including phenytoin (Dilantin), phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline)
  • Chemotherapy medicines, specifically methotrexate
  • Colchicine is a medication used to treat Gout
  • Bile acid sequestrants are used to reduce cholesterol levels and lower blood pressure. They include colestipol (Colestid) as well as the cholestyramine (Questran) as well as colesevelam (Welchol)
  • H2 blockers are used to lower stomach acid. These include Cimetidine (Tagamet) and famotidine (Pepcid AC), ranitidine (Zantac)
  • Metformin (Glucophage) is a medication used to treat diabetes
  • Proton pump inhibitorsused to decrease stomach acid comprise esomeprazole (Nexium) and Lansoprazole (Prevacid) Omeprazole (Prilosec), and Rabeprazole (Aciphex)

Antibiotics Tetracycline, Antibiotics: Vitamin B12 is not to be taken concurrently as tetracycline since it can interfere with the absorption and efficiency of this medication. Vitamin B12 is best taken at different times during the day when tetracycline is taken. All vitamin B complex vitamins work in this manner and must be taken at various timings when compared to tetracycline. Furthermore, long-term usage of antibiotics may decrease vitamin B levels within the body, specifically B2 and B9, as well as B12 and Vitamin H (biotin), which is believed to be a part of the B complex vitamins.

Supporting Research

Abularrage CJ, Sidawy AN, White PW, Aidinian G, Dezee KJ, Weiswasser JM, Arora S. Effect of folic Acid and vitamins B6 and B12 on microcirculatory vasoreactivity in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2007 Aug-Sep;41(4):339-45.

Adachi S, Kawamoto T, Otsuka M, Todoroki T, Fukao K. Enteral vitamin B12 supplements reverse postgastrectomy B12 deficiency. Ann Surg. 2000;232(2):199-201.

Alpert J.E. Mischoulon D Nierenberg A. Fava M. Depression and nutrition The focus should be on folate. Nutrition. 2000;16:544-81.

Annibale B, Lahner E, Fave GD. Diagnostic and treatment of anemia pernicious. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2011;13(6):518-24.

Bauman WA, Shaw S, Jayatilleke E, Spungen AM, Herbert V. Increased calcium intake reduces vitamin B12 malabsorption caused by metformin. Diabetes Care. 2000;13(9):1227-31.

Booth GL, Wang EE. Preventive health care Update 2000: Screening and treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia to prevent of coronary artery disease-related events. The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. CMAJ. 2000;163(1):21-29.

Bottiglieri T, Laundy M, Crellin R, Toone BK, Carney MW, Reynolds EH. Homocysteine, folate and methylation and monoamine metabolism during depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;69(2):228-32.

Chatterjee S, Chowdhury RG, Khan B. Medical treatment of male infertility. J Indian Med Assoc. 2006 Feb;104(2):74, 76-7.

Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. The Folic Acid, the pyridoxine and cyanocobalamin combined treatment for macular degeneration due to age in women. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:335-41.

Cuskelly GJ, Mooney KM, Young IS. Folate, vitamin B12 and Mooney KM: helpful or harmful nutrients for seniors. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007;66(4):548-58.

Deutch B, Jorgensen EB, Hansen JC. n-3 PUFAs from seal or fish oil lower risk factors for atherogenic heart disease for Danish women. Nutr Res. 2000;20:1065-77.

Hoffman: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012.

Kaptan K, Beyan C, Ural AU, et al. Helicobacter Pylori -is it a unique cause of Vitamin B12 deficiency? Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(9):1349-53.

Ko SH, Ko SH, Ahn YB, et al. A correlation between vitamin B12 deficiency and metformin consumption for patients with Type 2 Diabetes. J Korean Med Sci. 2014; 29(7):965-72.

Konings EJ; Committee on Food Nutrition. Water-soluble vitamins. JAOAC Int. 2006 Jan-Feb;89(1):285-8.

Kris-Etherton P, Eckel RH, Howard BV, St. Jeor S, Bazzarre TL. Lyon diet heart study. Benefits of Mediterranean-style diets. National Cholesterol Education Programme/American Heart Association Step I diet pattern on cardiovascular diseases. Circulation. 2001;103:1823-25.

Lam JR, Schneider JL, Zhao W, Corley DA. Histamine 2 receptor antagonists and the deficiency of vitamin B12. JAMA. 2013; 310(22):2435-42.

Louwman MW, van Dusseldorp M, van de Vijver FJ, et al. The signs of impairment in cognitive function in adolescents with low cobalamin status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):762-9.

Mazokopakis EE, Starakis IK. Recommendations to diagnose and manage of the metformin-induced vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;97(3):359-67.

Moore D, Jefferson J. Handbook of Medical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby. 2004; Chapter 234.

National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins. Accessed June 1, 2011.

Nutrients and Nutritional Agents. In: Kastrup EK, Hines Burnham T, Short RM, et al, eds. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:4-5.

Pawlak R, Lester SE, Babatunde T. The presence of cobalamin deficiencies among vegetarians, as measured via serum vitamin B12 levels: an overview of the research. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68(5):541-8.

Remacha AF Sarda MP, Canals C and Queralto JM. Zapico E, Remacha J, Carrascosa C. Combined cobalamin and iron deficiency A diagnostic method based on a model based on age and homocysteine evaluation. Ann Hematol. 2013;92(4):527-31.

Ryan-Harshman, M. Aldoori W. Vitamin B12, and health. Can Fam Physician. 2008;54(4):536-41.

Schnyder G. A decrease in the rate of coronary restenosis following the reduction of homocysteine levels in plasma. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(22):1593-1600.

Sinclair S. Male infertility Environmental and nutritional factors. Alt Med Rev. 2000;5(1):28-38.

Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Smith CD, Riley KR, Markesbery WR. The level of folate in the blood and the severity of atrophy in the neocortex within Alzheimer disease: evidence of the Nun Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:993-8.

Stucker M, Memmel U, Hoffmann M, et al. A vitamin B(12) cream containing avocado oil for treating plaque psoriasis. Dermatology. 2001;203:141-7.

Triantafyllou NI, et al. Folate and vitamin B12 levels in levodopa-treated Parkinson's patients: their relation to symptoms cognitive and mood. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008;14(4):321-25.

Wang HX. Vitamin B12 and folate's role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 2001;56:1188-94.

Yoshihara K, Kubo C. A review of the medical treatment and management for the chronic fatigue syndrome. Nippon Rinsho. 2007 Jun;65(6):1077-81. Review.

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