The Mediterranean Diet – Review the Latest Research

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A Mediterranean diet is based on legumes, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. It also includes fewer processed foods and less meat than a standard Western diet.

Doctors might recommend a Mediterranean diet to help people avoid illnesses and stay healthier for longer. The Mediterranean region is home to a variety of cuisines and foods. There is no particular Mediterranean diet; instead, there is one specific eating style.

A dietitian can assist in creating a food program that is suited to their requirements and the food items available to them.

This article will explain the basics of the Mediterranean diet and offer a seven-day eating plan for those who want to adhere to it.

What is the Mediterranean diet?
Adhering to the Mediterranean diet means eating the same way the people of the Mediterranean region typically consume.

Of course, not everyone in the Mediterranean region eats the same way, and the Mediterranean diet is intended to serve as a general guideline for a balanced and healthy diet based on plant-based ingredients.

Foods to avoid and foods to eat
The Mediterranean diet places a greater emphasis on plants than many other diets. Fruits, whole grains, vegetables, and legumes are the main components of snacks and meals.

Small portions of meat, fish, or eggs can be included in food. Many cooks use olive oil and spices and herbs for flavor.

A Mediterranean-style diet pattern focuses on the following food items:

A wide variety of fresh fruits and other vegetables
Whole grains
healthy fats like olive oil and nuts, seeds, and fish that are fatty
moderate quantities of seafood
small amounts of red meat and dairy products.
Moderate quantities of red wines are acceptable when eaten; however, drinks and water that do not contain added sugar, such as sparkling water and fresh juices, can aid in keeping people well-hydrated.

If you are adhering to the Mediterranean eating pattern, make sure to select snacks that are composed of healthy ingredients. Here are some options:

Fresh fruit served with some nuts
Unsweetened Greek yogurt with fresh sunflower seeds and fruit
Hummus and fresh vegetables
trail mix made from dried fruits and nuts, unsweetened
Chickpeas with herbs that have been roasted
Cottage cheese and berries
A hard-boiled egg topped with some cheese and some fresh fruit
Foods to avoid or limit
When you follow a healthy eating plan, such as following the Mediterranean diet, it is recommended to limit your intake of the following food items:

refined grains, including white bread, white pasta, and pizza dough made with white flour
trans fats, which are found in margarine as well as other processed food items
Foods that have added sugars, like sodas, pastries, and candies
Hot dogs, deli meats as well as other meat products processed
Ultra-processed food items like fast food
7-day menu plan for seven days
Here's an example of a seven-day Mediterranean diet:

Day 1

Egg frittata with vegetables served with avocado slices on toast with whole-grain
To increase calories, you can include another egg.

A vast green salad featuring baked salmon fillets with an onion red, cheese feta, the quinoa grain, and tomatoes.
Whole-grain pita bread
2 12 ounces (oz) of Hummus

A spicy soup made of lentils and spinach

Day 2

Greek yogurt dessert made from fresh berries, walnuts, and Chia seeds
To increase calories, you can add 1-2 ounces of almonds.

Greek cereal bowls for chicken made of cereal with cucumbers, olives, and red onions
Add avocado or hummus to the mix to boost the amount of calories.

Baked cod is served with garlic-roasted potatoes and asparagus

Day 3

Oats rolled or cut into pieces are decorated with fresh fruit, slices of almonds, almond butter, and drizzles of honey.

Mediterranean farro and chickpea salads

Mediterranean shrimp served with whole-wheat pasta

Day 4

Shakshuka is a breakfast dish of eggs poached in a sauce made of tomatoes, olive oil, onions, garlic, and peppers, typically spiced with paprika, cumin, and cayenne pepper.

Large green salad topped with fresh ingredients like lentils, fresh vegetables, and sunflower seeds. grilling shrimp

Roasted chicken, cooked vegetable root and Brussels sprouts
Roasted chicken, cooked vegetable root and Brussels sprouts

Day 5

hash made of sweet potatoes that is topped with poached eggs

Lentil with tuna and lentil salad

Mediterranean pasta

Day 6

Chia pudding is topped with fresh strawberries and almond butter

Mediterranean white bean soup, as well as a Greek salad

Baked fish with basil and garlic served with caprese quinoa salad

Day 7

Overnight Oats are made from nuts and berries

Mediterranean Buddha Bowl

Balsamic-cooked chicken and vegetables

Health benefits

The potential advantages of the Mediterranean diet are as follows.

Reducing the risk of heart disease

The evidence suggests that a Mediterranean diet could reduce the risk of cardiovascular events for those suffering from heart disease. One study compared two Mediterranean diets to a conventional diet for nearly five years.

The study suggested that the diet decreased the risk of heart-related issues, which include heart attack and death, by around 30% in comparison to those in the group that did not.

More research is needed to determine whether lifestyle-related elements, like fitness and increased social support systems, can be a factor in the lower rate of cardiovascular disease in Mediterranean countries compared to the United States.

Improved quality of sleep

In a study conducted in 2018, researchers looked into how the Mediterranean diet can affect sleep.

Their study suggests that following the Mediterranean diet could improve sleep quality for older adults. However, the Mediterranean diet was not found to impact the quality of sleep for younger people.

Weight loss

The Mediterranean diet could aid in managing weight.

A study from 2020 showed that maintaining weight loss could be twice as common among people who followed a Mediterranean diet as compared to the control group.

Frequently asked questions

Here are a few questions that people are likely to have concerning eating the Mediterranean diet.

What food should you eat?

What exactly do you eat on a Mediterranean diet?
There isn't a single Mediterranean diet. It is a more general approach based on natural, unprocessed, and fresh foods, including various fruits and vegetables. Seafood, dairy products, fish, and legumes are protein sources, as are some meat.

What should I eat during the Mediterranean diet to shed weight?

Consuming calories and energy expenditure is more vital to losing weight than any diet combination. However, the Mediterranean diet contains healthy fats, carbohydrates, and other nutrients. A diet focusing on whole grains and vegetables could help people lose weight in the context of an overall calorie deficit.

Is the Mediterranean diet beneficial for reducing inflammation?

Research suggests that a Mediterranean diet could have an anti-inflammatory impact compared to Western diets. However, the mechanisms for this impact still need to be better understood.

How do you identify the 9 main components of the Mediterranean diet?

The Mediterranean diet covers a broad selection of drinks and foods. It focuses on:

  • vegetables
  • Healthy oils, such as olive oil
  • Whole grains
  • legumes
  • Nuts and fruits
  • Shellfish and fish
  • dairy products that are low in fat
  • lean proteins
  • moderate alcohol intake


Following a Mediterranean diet involves making long-term, sustainable dietary choices.

In general, a diet high in natural foods, including lots of whole grains, vegetables, and healthy fats, is advised.

If you find that their diet doesn't satisfy you, it is best to talk to a dietitian. They may suggest additional or different foods that can help boost the feeling of satiation.

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